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Worst Prisons in Michigan

Michigan is home to some of the oldest and most notorious prisons in the United States. While efforts have been made in recent years to improve conditions and reduce overcrowding, several Michigan prisons continue to struggle with violence, poor healthcare, and decaying facilities. Based on data on violence, healthcare, overcrowding, and inmate complaints, here is a look at some of the worst prisons in Michigan today.

Marquette Branch Prison

Marquette Branch Prison is located in Michigan’s isolated Upper Peninsula along the shores of Lake Superior. The maximum security facility originally opened in 1889 and is one of Michigan’s oldest operating prisons.

With its remote location and harsh winter climate, Marquette has developed a reputation as an undesirable placement for both inmates and staff. The prison suffers from chronic understaffing which contributes to increased violence. The facility also faces criticism for inadequate medical and mental healthcare.

Some of the problems at Marquette Branch Prison include:

  • Frequent inmate-on-inmate assaults due to lack of supervision and control
  • A violent inmate culture including gang activity
  • An aging, deteriorating physical plant that is depressing for inmates
  • One of the highest levels of reported staff assaults in the state
  • Chronic shortages of healthcare professionals leading to poor medical care

The geographic isolation of Marquette Branch Prison makes visitation difficult for inmates’ families, which takes a psychological toll. While it houses fewer than 600 inmates, its remote location and violent environment make it one of the worst prisons in Michigan.

Bellamy Creek Correctional Facility

Bellamy Creek Correctional Facility in Ionia is a maximum security prison that houses over 1,200 adult male prisoners. Originally constructed in the 1970s, the facility suffers from overcrowding and related problems such as increased violence.

Healthcare is a major concern at Bellamy Creek, with inmates reporting inadequate access to doctors, long waits for treatment, and insufficient medications. The overcrowded conditions exacerbate communicable diseases as well. Cells meant to house one or two inmates often hold three or four prisoners, making it impossible to contain the spread of illness.

Other issues at Bellamy Creek include:

  • One of the highest levels of reported sexual violence in Michigan prisons
  • Frequent lockdowns due to violence or shortage of officers
  • Complaints of excessive use of force by officers
  • Gang activity and inmate-on-inmate assaults are a serious issue
  • An outdated and deteriorating physical plant plagued by maintenance issues
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With its high incarceration rate and history of violence, healthcare problems, and gang activity, Bellamy Creek Correctional Facility stands out as one of Michigan’s worst prisons.

Earnest C. Brooks Correctional Facility

Located in Muskegon Heights, Earnest C. Brooks Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison with capacity for over 2,000 inmates. The chronically overcrowded conditions have made Brooks notorious for inmate-on-inmate violence.

Gang violence is rampant at Brooks, with frequent assaults and altercations between members of rival gangs confined in close quarters. Weapons are readily available, resulting in slashing and stabbing incidents being common.

Other issues at Brooks include:

  • One of Michigan’s highest levels of prison rape and sexual assault
  • Unsanitary conditions in crowded cells and communal areas
  • Shortages of healthcare staff and psychiatric professionals
  • High noise levels and an environment lacking privacy or peace
  • Understaffing contributes to lack of inmate control and supervision

For prisoners confined there, Brooks is considered one of Michigan’s roughest and most dangerous prisons. Gang violence and sexual assaults pose significant safety risks to inmates. It exemplifies the problems arising from overcrowded, underfunded prisons.

Kinross Correctional Facility

Originally constructed as a mental hospital in the early 20th century, Kinross Correctional Facility was converted to a prison in 1989. The maximum security facility in Kincheloe houses over 1,200 inmates in the eastern end of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.

Kinross faces many challenges in terms of inmate violence and providing adequate healthcare. The architecture of the 100+ year old buildings makes housing violent or mentally ill inmates difficult. Staffing shortages are also a problem at the remote prison.

Additional issues at Kinross include:

  • High levels of assaults between inmates, including sexual assaults
  • Long lockdowns due to staffing shortages
  • Poor access to medical and mental healthcare
  • An outdated heating system makes temperature regulation difficult year-round
  • Deteriorating, cramped facilities that are depressing for inmates

Located in a remote area far from most inmates’ families, Kinross is considered an isolating and dangerous facility facing infrastructure and staffing challenges. With its history of violence and inadequate access to healthcare, it is one of Michigan’s worst prisons.

Oaks Correctional Facility

Located outside of Manistee, Oaks Correctional Facility is a relatively newer prison, having opened in 1996. However, problems with violence and sexual assault have plagued the facility.

Gang violence is rampant at Oaks, with rival gang members confined in close quarters escalating tensions. Inadequate staffing contributes to lack of control over the inmate population.

Other issues Oaks faces include:

  • One of the highest levels of prison rape reported in the state
  • Complaints of physical abuse by prison staff
  • Extreme temperature swings due to an outdated heating/cooling system
  • Plumbing problems and sewage backups which create unsanitary conditions
  • High noise levels and lack of inmate privacy

Oaks Correctional Facility presents serious risks of gang violence, sexual assault, and abuse by staff. Though a newer facility, it has quickly gained a reputation as one of the worst prisons in Michigan due to these unsafe conditions for inmates.

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Charles E. Egeler Correctional Facility

Constructed in 1938, Egeler Correctional Facility is a maximum security prison with capacity for over 1,500 prisoners. Located in Jackson, Michigan, Egeler has developed a reputation for inmate-on-inmate stabbings and assaults.

Gangs constitute a major issue at Egeler, with violent rivalries between groups leading to assaults, extortion of weaker prisoners, and intimidation of staff. Weapons are readily available.

Additional issues at Egeler include:

  • Severe overcrowding in outdated facilities
  • Spread of communicable diseases due to tight quarters
  • Complaints of extended lockdowns and lack of yard time
  • Correctional officers face one of the highest assault rates in Michigan
  • Decaying infrastructure including heating, plumbing, and electrical

Egeler Correctional faces challenges controlling and protecting inmates in crowded, gang-plagued facilities suffering from old infrastructure. This makes it one of Michigan’s most dangerous prisons.

Inmate Violence By the Numbers

Michigan prisons reported over 750 inmate-on-inmate assaults in 2021. Here is a breakdown of the prisons with the highest rates of violence:

PrisonReported Assaults
Marquette Branch Prison118
Bellamy Creek Correctional Facility103
Earnest C. Brooks Correctional Facility93
Oaks Correctional Facility83
Kinross Correctional Facility78

These high assault rates show that violence remains an ongoing challenge in many Michigan prisons. Lack of staffing and control over the inmate population contribute to unsafe conditions.

Overcrowding exacerbates tensions and allows gang activity to thrive. Michigan prisons have struggled to contain violence despite reform efforts.

Why Do These Problems Persist in Michigan Prisons?

Despite increased public awareness and government initiatives to improve state prisons, many facilities continue to suffer from violence, poor health and safety conditions, and inadequate staffing. There are a few key reasons why these systemic problems persist in many Michigan prisons.

Chronic Underfunding

The Michigan Department of Corrections has over 40 prisons and correctional facilities to maintain with limited budgets. Insufficient funding makes it difficult to recruit qualified staff, maintain and upgrade facilities, and provide quality medical care. Guards are often forced to work overtime, leading to fatigue and reduced vigilance. With inadequate staff, prisons struggle to control inmates.


Many Michigan prisons are filled beyond capacity, forcing inmates to bunk three or four to a cell. Cramped conditions increase tension and make gang recruitment easier. Containing communicable diseases also becomes difficult. Too few guards are available to safely supervise the large inmate population.

Public Indifference

Prisons and prisoners often draw little public sympathy or attention compared to other issues. Voters may not view improving prison conditions as a spending priority. This allows problems to fester and worsen over time without pressure for reform.

Bureaucratic Resistance

Prison staff and employee unions can sometimes resist reforms such as increased transparency, independent oversight, and disciplinary action against abusive staff. Maintaining the status quo is often easier than implementing major reforms.

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Lack of Preventative Measures

Mental healthcare, vocational training, addiction treatment, and rehabilitation programs are often underfunded in Michigan prisons. Without proactively addressing inmates’ needs and issues, problems stemming from mental illness, addiction, and lack of opportunity grow worse behind bars.

While recent years have seen some reforms and funding increases, Michigan’s prison system has struggled to overcome these systemic challenges. Overcrowding, understaffing, aging facilities, and lack of inmate services allow unsafe conditions to persist in many facilities across the state.

Are Significant Reforms on the Horizon?

In recent years, there has been growing debate around reforming Michigan’s prison system in light of its many ongoing problems. However, meaningful reforms face an uphill battle against bureaucratic inertia and public indifference. Here are some of the reform proposals under discussion:

Sentencing Reform

Reducing mandatory minimum sentences and increasing opportunities for parole could alleviate overcrowding in the long run. Judges would gain more discretion on sentencing nonviolent offenders. However, prosecutors have resisted repealing mandatory minimums. The public also fears going soft on criminals.

Private Prisons

Contracting with private companies to operate certain facilities could increase funding for staffing, maintenance, and healthcare. But opponents argue profit motives could worsen inmate exploitation. Private facilities are also difficult to monitor and regulate.

Independent Oversight

Establishing a statewide independent inspector to investigate prison conditions and abuses could increase transparency. But corrections staff often resist outside oversight that could jeopardize their jobs. Powerful unions lobby against such reforms.

Inmate Education and Vocational Training

Expanding access to education, vocational certifications, counseling, and addiction treatment could improve inmates’ well-being and job prospects after release. However, many view “coddling” prisoners as undeserved. Securing funding for these programs is an uphill battle.

Improved Medical and Mental Healthcare

Increasing medical staff, access to medications, and mental healthcare would benefit inmates struggling with addiction, trauma, and mental illness. But hiring doctors and psychiatrists is difficult with limited budgets. The public also has little sympathy for spending on prisoner healthcare.

Major systemic reforms to Michigan’s prison system face obstacles, from bureaucratic resistance to public indifference. While small improvements have been made, transformative change remains elusive, allowing unsafe conditions to persist in many facilities.


While Michigan has poured billions into building new prisons since the 1980s, many facilities still face problems of underfunding, understaffing, overcrowding, aging infrastructure, and lack of oversight. As a result, prisons like Marquette, Bellamy Creek, Brooks, Kinross, Oaks, and Egeler continue to suffer from inmate violence, poor medical care, and unsafe conditions.

Prisoner rehabilitation, training programs, adequate staffing, and independent oversight have all taken a back seat to incarceration. The public’s indifference and misconceptions about prisoners have also slowed reform. Until sentencing guidelines, funding priorities, and public attitudes shift, Michigan’s notorious prisons will likely remain violent, mismanaged, and detrimental to inmates’ physical and mental health.

Prison Inside Team

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Welcome to ‘Prison Inside,’ a blog dedicated to shedding light on the often hidden and misunderstood world within correctional facilities. Through firsthand accounts, personal narratives, and insightful reflections, we delve into the lives of those who find themselves behind bars, offering a unique perspective on the challenges, triumphs, and transformations that unfold within the confines of these walls.

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