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Worst Prisons in Texas

Texas has one of the largest prison populations in the United States, with over 140,000 inmates in around 100 state prisons as of 2022. While some of these facilities are relatively modern and humane, others have developed notoriously poor reputations over the years for violence, gang activity, decrepit conditions and human rights violations. Here is an overview of some of the worst prisons in Texas based on reports of overcrowding, lack of safety and healthcare issues.

Estelle Unit – Huntsville

The Estelle Unit in Huntsville is one of the oldest prisons in Texas, having opened in 1908. With a capacity for just under 3,000 inmates, Estelle has developed a reputation as one of the toughest and most violent prisons in the state.

Gang violence is rampant at Estelle, with conflicts between groups like the Mexican Mafia and Aryan Brotherhood not uncommon. Inmate-on-inmate assaults are frequent, made worse by staffing shortages and lack of supervision. The close quarters, dilapidated facilities, lack of air conditioning and sweltering Texas heat all contribute to an environment of tension and violence.

The building housing death row and the execution chamber is located within the Estelle Unit. Executions were carried out by electric chair until the 1960s, after which lethal injections became the method used. Between 1924 and 1964, 361 inmates were executed at Estelle.

McConnell Unit – Beeville

The McConnell Unit is a maximum-security prison with serious issues of overcrowding. Built to house only 1,700 men, it frequently houses over 3,000 inmates. The cramped conditions exacerbate gang tensions and violence.

McConnell has a reputation for an incompetent medical staff that provides substandard healthcare. Inmates have claimed they are denied treatment for even serious medical conditions like heart disease and diabetes. The building housing the medical clinic lacks air conditioning, which poses risks to both inmates and medical staff.

Reports of hostile treatment towards inmates by staff are common at McConnell. Excessive use of force, humiliation tactics, racial discrimination and verbal harassment by guards have all been alleged. The harsh environment has contributed to at least 5 inmate suicides in recent years.

Hodge Unit – Rusk

Known as one of the toughest prisons in Texas, the Hodge Unit has a well-documented reputation for violence and abuse. Several violent inmate-on-inmate killings earned Hodge the nickname “The Killing Fields.” Even after the appointment of a new warden in 2017 who pledged reforms, issues with gang violence persist.

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Living conditions at Hodge are dismal, with unsanitary facilities, broken toilets and showers, insect infestations, extreme temperatures and overcrowding. Allegations of sexual abuse by guards against vulnerable inmates have plagued the unit. The Texas Observer called Hodge the “worst state jail in Texas” in 2017.

Wallace Pack Unit – Navasota

The Wallace Pack Unit is known for its inhumane treatment towards elderly and disabled inmates who require serious medical care. The extreme summer heat in Texas hits inmates held in the dorm-style prison especially hard. The Pack Unit has been the subject of lawsuits alleging violations of the Americans with Disabilities Act due to its lack of air conditioning and climate control.

At least 23 heat-related deaths have occurred at the Pack Unit since 1998 according to records reviewed by NPR. Yet legal efforts to force the installation of air conditioning at the prison have been unsuccessful so far. Elderly and disabled inmates with no means of escape continue to suffer every summer at Pack.

Jordan Unit – Pampa

Located in the remote panhandle region of Texas, the Jordan Unit suffers from chronic understaffing which has contributed to violence, contraband smuggling and power held by prison gangs. Remote locations of many Texas prisons hamper hiring efforts.

Jordan frequently goes on full lockdowns to search for contraband and tamp down on inmate clashes. Gangs orchestrate “gang takeovers” where they completely control prison units for extended periods. Sexual abuse of inmates by staff has also been an issue – the Houston Chronicle reported the high profile arrest of a Jordan warden in 2018 for such abuses.

Darrington Unit – Rosharon

Darrington Unit has gained notoriety for its poor healthcare services and neglect of inmates with serious medical conditions like cancer, HIV and hepatitis C. Additionally, the lack of air conditioning in living areas causes heat-related illnesses every summer. Darrington is one of many Texas prisons under investigation by the U.S. Department of Justice over allegations of illegal prisoner mistreatment.

Violence, gang activity, decrepit facilities, understaffing and overcrowding are also problems at Darrington. Lockdowns are implemented frequently in order for guards to conduct searches and return order when fights break out between rival gangs vying for influence in the crowded prison.

Polunsky Unit – Livingston

Home to Texas’ death row for men, the Polunsky Unit sees its share of violence. It houses some of the most dangerous prisoners in the state’s system, as well as a high proportion of mentally ill inmates who are often held in solitary confinement. Prisoner suicides and self-harm attempts are common at Polunsky.

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The solitary confinement cells used for disciplinary segregation are located at Polunsky. Solitary confinement involves isolation in a tiny cell for nearly 24 hours per day. Human rights groups condemn extended stays in solitary as inhumane torture. Yet Texas routinely holds death row inmates and prisoners with mental illness in solitary for years.

Table: Notable Incidents at Worst Texas Prisons

Estelle Unit20225 guard officers injured in gang riot
McConnell Unit2021Inmate dies of heart attack amid delayed medical response
Hodge Unit2020Widespread COVID-19 outbreak infects 1,300 inmates
Wallace Pack Unit201955-year old inmate found dead of heat stroke
Jordan Unit2018Warden arrested for sexual abuse of 3 inmates
Darrington Unit2017Prisoner loses 35 pounds, dies awaiting cancer treatment
Polunsky Unit20164 inmates commit suicide over 2 month period

Which Texas Prison is the Most Overcrowded?

The McConnell Unit in Beeville is likely the most overcrowded prison in Texas. Built to accommodate just 1,700 inmates, the facility frequently houses over 3,000 men, almost double its intended capacity.

The severe overcrowding at McConnell exacerbates problems with gang violence, inadequate medical care, infrastructure failures, high temperatures and tense conditions between inmates. It was designed as a medium security facility but due to demand now houses maximum security inmates as well, for which its facilities are unsuitable.

Other Texas prisons with extreme overcrowding include the Jordan, Estelle, and Darrington Units. The massive prison population in Texas outpaces capacity at many facilities, forcing cramped and unsafe living conditions. Some critics argue Texas’ harsh sentencing laws and underuse of parole are partially to blame. Texas also has a very limited number of privately run prisons, meaning the state facilities absorb most of the burgeoning prison population.

What are the Most Violent Prisons in Texas?

Several prisons vie for the notorious title of most violent facility in Texas. The Estelle, Hodge, and McConnell Units are considered among the worst.

Gang violence is rampant in these prisons, with deadly clashes between rival groups a serious issue. The Mexican Mafia, Aryan Brotherhood, and Texas Syndicate gangs battle for influence, especially in overcrowded prisons where tempers flare.

Inmate assaults are common in the most violent prisons. Lack of supervision due to understaffing, excessive heat, poor living conditions, and high tensions contribute to frequent violence between inmates.

Estelle has witnessed inmate homicides, riots, and guard attacks, including a 2022 riot where inmates attacked officers. Hodge saw several inmate homicides earning it the “Killing Fields” label. McConnell struggles with violence amplified by severe overcrowding.

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What are Conditions Like in The Pack Unit?

Built in 1908 with poorly circulated air, the Pack Unit is notorious for its sweltering summer heat that poses major risks to vulnerable inmates.

Elderly and disabled inmates with medical conditions suffer greatly in the extreme heat and humidity. Convicts with diseases, heart conditions, and respiratory problems are housed at Pack without air conditioning. At least 23 heat-related deaths have occurred there since 1998.

Inmates describe the hellish conditions, with temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Insects, mosquitos and rodents thrive in the heat. Elderly inmates are often too weak to shower or walk to meals in the heat. Despite lawsuits to force air conditioning, Texas continues to keep Pack dangerously hot.

A 2011 audit found Pack failed to meet minimum standards for medical care, rehabilitation, and access to drinking water. Pack represents the dangers of housing vulnerable inmates in unsafe conditions unsuited for Texas heat.

Is Solitary Confinement Overused in Texas Prisons?

Yes, several human rights groups argue that solitary confinement amounts to torture and is relied on too extensively in Texas prisons.

The Polunsky Unit houses the majority of Texas’ death row prisoners in solitary. Conditions involve isolation in a tiny cell for 23 hours per day with no human contact. Meals are eaten alone and sensory deprivation causes immense psychological damage. Critics condemn extended solitary as cruel and inhumane.

Yet Texas prisons routinely use solitary to discipline infractions. Mentally ill prisoners who act out are held in solitary for “security” purposes. Some Texas inmates have spent over 20 consecutive years in solitary confinement.

While solitary confinement may be appropriate as a last resort for brief durations, many argue that Texas prisons overuse the tactic. Some states have placed limits on solitary to reduce psychological harm. However, Texas prisons continue to rely heavily on the controversial practice.


In reviewing some of Texas’ worst prisons for violence, lack of safety, dangerous conditions and human rights violations, an unacceptable pattern emerges. While any prison system has some problem facilities, the number of Texas prisons with chronic issues raises serious concerns about the treatment of inmates.

Overcrowding worsened by harsh sentencing exacerbates many problems. Understaffing also contributes to lack of order, supervision and violence. The dangers of extreme heat are ignored by failure to install air conditioning in aging facilities. Abuse by guards and incompetent healthcare undermine human dignity. Reliance on torturous solitary confinement remains excessive.

While budget constraints and the need for security are often cited, basic reforms are still necessary in the worst Texas prisons. More oversight, hiring of staff, removing vulnerable inmates from unsafe conditions, and upholding human rights standards could go a long way. If issues are not addressed, the worst prisons in Texas will continue to damage and endanger inmates in violation of ethical norms.

Prison Inside Team

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Welcome to ‘Prison Inside,’ a blog dedicated to shedding light on the often hidden and misunderstood world within correctional facilities. Through firsthand accounts, personal narratives, and insightful reflections, we delve into the lives of those who find themselves behind bars, offering a unique perspective on the challenges, triumphs, and transformations that unfold within the confines of these walls.

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