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Is Broadmoor Prison Still Open? Examining the History and Operation of England’s Oldest Psychiatric Hospital

Broadmoor Hospital holds a notorious place in British history as one of the oldest criminal psychiatric facilities still operating today. Its foreboding reputation has many wondering – is Broadmoor Prison still open? While no longer a traditional prison, Broadmoor continues serving as a high-security mental institution for dangerous offenders needing treatment.

Exploring Broadmoor’s evolution, operations, inhabitants, and future provides insight into its current status managing some of the nation’s most unstable minds. This Victorian-era asylum retains its original mandate, even as its methods progress.

History and Background of Broadmoor Hospital

Broadmoor Hospital was first constructed in 1863 outside London as an asylum for the criminally insane. For over 150 years, its purpose has remained the custodial care of mentally ill inmates. Notable details of its past include:

  • Origins tracing back to a ward for mentally ill prisoners at Bethlem Royal Hospital
  • Opened in 1863 after the Criminal Lunatics Act of 1860 was passed
  • Its remote location was intentionally distancing from populated areas
  • Accepted transfers from prisons judged to be criminally insane
  • Gained notoriety for infamous Victorian serial killer patients like the “London Monster”
  • Jack the Ripper suspects were also once held there
  • Peak population around 1,800 in the early 20th century
  • Still one of only three high-security psychiatric hospitals in England
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Is Broadmoor Still a Prison?

While often still referred to as a prison, Broadmoor underwent an important transition:

  • 1948: Transferred from prison department control to become an NHS institution
  • Role evolved to focus on care and treatment over punishment
  • Surrounded by a high perimeter wall but run as a hospital
  • Patients are more accurately described as inmates or detainees

So while colloquially sometimes called Broadmoor Prison, its purpose transformed into a psychiatric facility many decades ago. It is overseen by medical standards, not a penal system.

What Type of Inmates Are Housed at Broadmoor Today?

As a high-security mental hospital, Broadmoor caters to a niche demographic:

  • Male and female convicted offenders requiring psychiatric care
  • Those ruled “criminally insane” or unfit to stand trial
  • Prison transfers for violent/unstable behavior
  • Patients detained via Mental Health Act orders
  • Considered a severe danger to themselves and others

Treatment focuses on stabilizing acute mental illness to manage violence and aggression.

Conditions and Security at Broadmoor

Broadmoor operates more akin to a psychiatric ward than correctional facility:

  • 210 inpatient beds and outpatient facilities
  • Enhanced staff-to-patient ratios
  • Locked, single room accommodation
  • Seclusion rooms for escalations
  • Wards organized by gender and condition
  • Group therapy, counseling, medication management
  • Occupational and social activities

However, extensive precautions safeguard against dangers posed:

  • High-perimeter Victorian redbrick wall with barred windows
  • Electronic surveillance, alarm systems
  • Secure entry/exit points requiring authorization
  • Screened visitor access and rules against contraband
  • Expansive grounds surrounded by security fencing

Controversies and Upgrades at Broadmoor

Broadmoor has weathered controversies around safety and unsanitary Victorian infrastructure:

  • Failure to prevent escaped patients like the 1984 escapee who killed a schoolteacher
  • Overcrowding, poor conditions, exposure to asbestos
  • A 2013 TV documentary exposed serious deficiencies
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This spurred major modernization efforts:

  • £250 million redevelopment initiative began in 2013
  • New buildings constructed for improved wards, therapy facilities, staff quarters and amenities
  • Enhanced security technologies deployed across redesigned campus
  • Project aims to reduce risk and provide 21st century standards of mental healthcare

The upgrades address aging infrastructure challenges that plagued the site.

Is Broadmoor Still Open Today?

Yes, Broadmoor continues operations today as one of England’s three premier high-security psychiatric facilities:

  • Accepts patients from across the UK grappling with severe mental illness
  • Current population around 210 detainees and outpatients
  • Run by West London NHS Trust under Ministry of Justice purview
  • Functions as a working hospital performing assessments, treatments, and research
  • Detains offenders throughout their incarceration and rehabilitation

The newly renovated Broadmoor remains active, yet controversy around safety and escapes persists.


Broadmoor Hospital has evolved significantly from its 19th century “criminal lunatic asylum” origins, though still retains its original site and security-focused mission. Transitioning toward modern psychiatry and a redesigned campus puts it on firmer footing after fears of dysfunction and deterioration. While this notorious facility will likely always carry dark connotations in the public imagination, efforts to uplift conditions and care leave Broadmoor poised to restore confidence in managing society’s most mentally unstable offenders.


What year was Broadmoor Hospital first opened?

It was first constructed in 1863 with the original buildings still part of the current campus over 150 years later.

How did the role of Broadmoor change when it transferred to the NHS?

It evolved from a prison for the criminally insane to a psychiatric hospital focused on mental healthcare and rehabilitation.

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What is the typical patient population size at Broadmoor?

It hovers around 210 detainees currently, both men and women. This is down from over 1,800 at its peak in the early 1900s.

Has anyone ever escaped from Broadmoor Hospital?

Yes, there have been several notorious escapes over the decades, most recently in 1984 when a patient escaped and murdered a woman.

When did the major redevelopment and renovation of Broadmoor begin?

A £250 million construction initiative started in 2013 and remains ongoing to upgrade aging infrastructure with modern facilities.

Prison Inside Team

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Welcome to ‘Prison Inside,’ a blog dedicated to shedding light on the often hidden and misunderstood world within correctional facilities. Through firsthand accounts, personal narratives, and insightful reflections, we delve into the lives of those who find themselves behind bars, offering a unique perspective on the challenges, triumphs, and transformations that unfold within the confines of these walls.

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